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The important word semiconductor is composition of two words-Semi and Conductor. Semi means not completely while the conductor word means something, which can conduct electricity. Everybody knows what “Electricity” is. It is present everywhere; many appliances in your home and outside the home like TV, Bulb, Freeze, and Microwave Oven etc. are based on electricity. In simple terms, the current must pass through wires so that the electricity can reach up to these appliances.
So a conductor is a material having ability to conduct this electricity. Semiconductors conduct electricity to some extent, less than the conductors, how much do you think? Well, it depends on the type of material or its mixture and size. A semiconductor is a material that has intermediate conductivity between a conductor and an insulator. It means that it has unique physical properties somewhere in between a conductor like aluminum and an insulator like glass. There’s a process called doping, small amounts of impurities are added to pure semiconductors which effected in large changes in the conductivity of the material. Example which include silicon, the basic common material used in the integrated circuit and germanium, the semiconductor used for the first transistors. Semiconductors are used heavily in electronic circuits. As its name states, a semiconductor is a material that conducts current, but only partially. The level of conductivity of a semiconductor is somewhere between an insulator, which has almost zero level conductivity, and a conductor, which has almost full level of conductivity. Most semiconductors are crystals made of some materials, most commonly silicon. To understand how semiconductors work, you must first understand a little about how electrons are organized in an atom. The electrons present in an atom are organized in layers. These layers are called shells. The outermost shell is called valence shell. The electrons in this shell form bonds with neighboring atoms. Such bonds are called as covalent bonds. Most conductors have only one electron in the valence shell and Semiconductors, on the other hand, typically have four electrons in their valence shell. If all the neighboring atoms are of the same type, it’s possible for all the valence electrons to bind with other valence electrons from other atoms. When that happens, the atoms arrange themselves into a structure which is called crystals. Semiconductors are made up of such crystals, which are usually silicon crystals.
Most of the semiconductor devices and chips are created with silicon. The commonly heard expressions like “Silicon Valley” and the “Silicon Economy” come from this fact. In the periodic table, you will find that silicon just sits next to aluminum, below carbon and above germanium. Carbon, silicon and germanium have same property in their electron structure — each has four electrons in its outer orbital. This allows them to form nice crystals. The four electrons form perfect covalent bonds with four neighboring atoms, creating a lattice. In carbon, we know the crystalline form which is diamond. In silicon, the crystalline form is a silvery, metallic-looking substance. Metals are said to be good conductors of electricity because they usually have “free electrons” that can easily move between atoms, and we know that electricity involves the flow of electrons. While silicon crystals look metallic, they are not, in fact, metals. All of the outer electrons in a silicon crystal are involved in perfect covalent bonds, so they can’t move around. A pure silicon crystal is nearly an insulator — very little electricity will flow through it. You can change the behavior of silicon and turn it into a conductor by doping it. In doping, you mix a small amount of an impurity into the silicon crystal. A very small amount of either N-type or P-type doping turns a silicon crystal from a good insulator into a viable but not very efficient conductor — hence the name “semiconductor.”
What is the need of semiconductor and electronics circuit TRAINING?
In this training you will get learn about semiconductor, its types, how it works. Semiconductors have had a great impact on our society. You find semiconductors at the heart of microprocessor chips and also at transistors. Anything that is computerized or uses radio waves depends on semiconductors.
Today, most semiconductor chips and transistors are created with silicon. You may have heard expressions like “Silicon Valley” and the “silicon economy,” and that’s why — silicon is the heart of any electronic device. The band structure of semiconductors is such that the outermost band of electrons, the valence band, is completely full. If a voltage is tried to applied, there is no conduction of electrons because there are no empty spaces left to allow the electrons to move around freely. In order for conduction to occur, electrons must be excited to the next highest band, which is known as the conduction band. The conduction band is normally empty but is separated from the valence band by only a small amount of energy. Conductivity of a material is known by two factors i.e. the concentration of free carriers available so that current can be conducted and their level of mobility. In a semiconductor, both mobility and carrier concentration are dependent on temperature. Thus, it is important to view the conductivity as a function of temperature. The main reason semiconductor materials are so useful is that the behavior of a semiconductor can be easily changed by the addition of impurities, known as doping. Semiconductor conductivity can be controlled by introduction of an electric or magnetic field, by exposure to light or heat, or by mechanical deformation of a doped mono-crystalline grid; thus, semiconductors are able to make excellent sensors. Current conduction in a semiconductor occurs via “free electrons and holes” collectively known as charge carriers. Doping a semiconductor such as silicon with a little amount of impurity atoms, such as phosphorus or boron greatly increases the number of free electrons or holes within the semiconductor.
It can be made in very small size and even the electronics device are small in size that’s why the semiconductors are used in electronic devices.
Languages should be known for semiconductor and electronics circuit training
A computer with internet is needed as online learning will be there. Don’t skip any video as all are interconnected and if gets missed then further part will be difficult to understand.
The course starts from very basic level; so most of engineering students will enjoy learning as everything will be explained.
Semiconductors and Electronics circuit Training Advantages
• Will be well versed with semiconductor and electronic circuit.
• Types of semiconductors like p-type, n-type, intrinsic and extrinsic conductors which is very essential for this course.
• All the procedures related to semiconductor and circuits will be learnt which is important part of it.
• How to make calculations based on some conditions like temperature, electrons.
• How a transistor works and how to make it work is also important.
• Some analysis and estimation part knowledge will be provided.
Who is this course for?
This course is for those who want to get into Electronics Company, so there is needed a lot of interest in this topic.
Semiconductors and integrated circuit manufacturing companies
Students graduating in technical streams like electronics engineering
Engineering students can opt this course in 1st year students are taught basic about the circuits and semiconductor related articles.
Electronics and electronics with telecommunication can take up this course for sure.
Professionals from Semiconductor Industry can go for this course as it has taught all the calculations which are done in industry level.
All electronics student go in IT industry so Electronics Company wants electronics students to work in their field.
Actually beginners can even take this course as teaching is from base level so there will be no difficulty for starters.
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